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Spanish for Beginners: Part II

Introduction

In part one of this course you have seen some of the basics of the Spanish language. You have seen the verb "ser", personal pronouns, articles and gender, formal pronouns, possessive adjectives and plural nouns, regular verbs and negation and adjectives, adverbs and questions. In this second part we will expand our knowledge and go deeper into the material.

Part Two

Lesson 6: More pronouns

Personal "A" Rule

In this lesson we are going to discuss pronouns, but before we do that we are going to have to make you acquainted with a weird Spanish grammar rule. Consider the two sentences:

 I see the bike
 I see the man

In Spanish, you would probably expect to see the following outcome:

 Veo la bicicleta
 *Veo el hombre

The first translation is perfectly correct, but the second, contrary to what you expect, is NOT! Therefore it is marked with an asterisk. The sentence is incomplete, because in Spanish you need to insert an extra preposition when you talk about people, namely the preposition "a". It is only used for people and not for objects, etc. And this so called Personal A rule only applies when the person is in the direct object. The (direct) object is the part of the sentence that is undergoing the action of the verb while the subject is the one initiating the action of the verb. Our sentence would therefore translate as:

 *Veo a el hombre

As the asterisk shows, this is still not entirely correct. We have now applied the grammar correctly but there is a little contraction rule we need to apply. When "a" is followed by "el" it contracts to a single word "al". The final and correct translation would therefore be:

 Veo al hombre

More Pronouns

In Lesson 1, we learned about personal pronouns. We can remember the following list:

 Yo  I
 Tú  You
 Usted  You (formal)
 Él  He
 Ella  She
 Nosotros  We
 Vosotros  You (plural)
 Ellos  They

Note that all of these pronouns appear in the subject position of the sentence, although they are usually omitted:

 [Yo] veo al hombre
 I see the man

We all know that personal pronouns have a different form when they are in the object position of the sentence. If we would simply move a personal pronoun from subject position to object position, then we would get a wrong sentence, as the following example illustrates:

 *I see he

Because "he" appears in object position in this case, we have to change it`s form to "him". Likewise "we" changes to "us", etc. The same principle applies to Spanish. We can construct the following table for Spanish object pronouns:

 Me  Me
 Te  You
 Le,La  You (formal)
 Le  Him
 La  Her
 Lo  It
 Nos  Us
 Os  You (plural)
 Les,Las  Them

You see two possibilities separated by a comma in some instances. The first is masculine (or mixed) and the second is feminine. Our example sentence would translate as follows:

 I see him [Yo] le veo

You immediately notice that the object pronoun in Spanish appears BEFORE the verb. So you get the idea: in object positions you have to use the object pronoun because otherwise you will get an ill-formed sentence, just like in English.

We can distinguish another grammaticality pronouns can appear in, the so-called indirect object. An indirect object is the receiver of the action. Consider the following:

 I give the man a present  Doy un regalo al hombre

Here too you see "al hombre", involving the preposition "a", but in this case "el hombre" is the receiver and not the direct object. This is not because of the personal A rule. "a" here is simply the preposition "to", which is required in Spanish, unlike in English. A more literal translation would be:

 I give a present to the man  Doy un regalo al hombre

You will note that "el hombre" is obviously the receiver in this example, and therefore it is the indirect object. Like there are direct object pronouns, which we've just seen. There are also indirect object pronouns. We can also replace "el hombre" with a pronoun here. In that case we do not need the preposition "a" (meaning "to" anymore and the pronoun will move to in front of the verb, like we saw with the direct object pronouns. We have the following table for indirect object pronouns. It is quite similar to the table for the direct object pronouns, but there are some minor differences:

 Me  Me
 Te  You
 Le  You (formal)
 Le  Him
 Le  Her
 Le  It
 Nos  Us
 Os  You (plural)
 Les  Them

And thus we can replace "el hombre" with an indirect object pronoun and move it in front of the verb, obtaining the following result:

 I give him a present  [Yo] le doy un regalo

We can even construct double pronouns now! But, where we used "le" or "les" as indirect object in constructions involving a single pronoun, we have to use "se" when we are dealing with double pronouns:

 I give him it  Se lo doy

Note that the indirect object pronoun always comes first and is directly followed by the direct object pronoun.

Vocabulary

 Ver (yo ve, tu ves, él ve.....)  To see
 Dar (yo doy, tu das, él da.....)  To give
 El regalo  The present

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to English:
1) Doy un regalo grande al hombre amable.
2) Me da una bicicleta nueva.
3) Les vemos bien.
4) ¿Qué quiere ella?
5) ¿Por qué andan rápido?
6) No la ves.
7) Se lo damos.
8) No lo ven.
9) La dan los regalos.

Exercise B: Translate to Spanish:
1) I see her.
2) Her dog sees me well.
3) You give me a present.
4) They see it.
5) What does she give him?
6) Why don't you see it?
7) They give me her.

Solutions

In this lesson, we will list both the official pronoun forms as well as the colloquial ones. In next lessons we will only list one of them.

Solution of Exercise A:
1) I give the nice man a big present.
2) He/she/you(form) give(s) me a new bike.
3) We see them well.
4) What does she want?
5) Why do they walk fast?
6) You don't see her.
7) We give it to him/her/them.
8) They don't see it.
9) They give her the presents.

Solution of Exercise B:
1) La ve.
2) Su perro me ve bien.
3) Me da/das un regalo.
4) Lo ven.
5) ¿Qué le da [ella]?
6) ¿Porqué no lo ve/ves?
7) Me la dan.


Lesson 7: Prepositions and Conjunctions

Prepositions

We've already seen one preposition in the previous lesson, but the time has come to discuss this issue in depth, because prepositions are such a vital part of a language and it's hard to build a sentence without them.

Prepositions are those little words that mark places in space or time. The prepositions are best explained by envisioning a birdcage and a bird, and the ways they relate to each other:

The bird can be in the cage. ("in" being a preposition). But it can also be on top of the cage, under the cage, it can fly through the cage, or fly out of the cage. It can be stuck between two cages or it can take a nap in front of the cage. You see that there are lot more possibilities! All those bold-faced words are prepositions.

Prepositions are quite abstract and therefore different languages have entirely different prepositions. There is not a simple one-to-one relation between pronouns in different languages, so they will have to be discussed separately.

Possession

Let us start our discussion with possession. In English we use the pronoun "of", in Spanish we use: "de".

 La casa de mi padre
 The house of my father

However, when "de" is followed by the article "él" it will contract to "del" instead of "*de el".

 La casa del padre
 The house of the father
Origin
 Yo soy de España  I am from Spain
 Obtiene un regalo de mi padre  I get a present from my father
Destination
 Voy a la escuela  I go to school
 Voy al padre  I go to the father

Also, here you notice the contraction of "*a el" to "al".

To be: part II

We will discuss some simple prepositions specifying a location, but this can't be done yet, because first we have to cover some odd material: the Spanish language has TWO different verbs for "to be", each with their own distinct purpose. When we are going to talk about location we can no longer use the verb "ser" which we have already seen. Instead we have to use the verb "estar" which conjugates as follows (irregularly):

 Yo estoy  I am
 Tu estás  You are
 Él/Ella/Usted está  He/She/You(formal) are
 Nosotros estamos  We are
 Vosotros estáis  You are
 Ellos/Ellas están  They are

The main difference between the two is that "ser" is used for things that are more-or-less permanent like your name, gender, even occupation, religion etc, while "estar" is used for ever changing things such as your location and your emotional state ("I am happy"). Now we are aware of this we can continue our discussion of Spanish prepositions:

Location
 Estoy en la casa I am in/on the house
 Estoy dentro de la casa  I am in the house
 Estoy delante de la casa  I am in front of the house
 Estoy detrás de la casa  I am behind the house
 Estoy encima de la casa  I am on (top of) the house
 Estoy al lado de la casa  I am on the side of the house
 Estoy cerca de la casa  I am near the house
 Estoy debajo de la casa  I am under the house
 Estoy arriba de la casa  I am above the house
 Estoy entre las casas  I am between the houses
Movement

Note that when it comes to movement, Spanish sometimes uses postpositions instead of prepositions, meaning that the word comes after the complement it applies to.

 Salto sobre la casa  I jump over the house
 Voy a través de la casa  I go through the house

The Spanish prepositions above are more-or-less used in the same situation as their English counterparts.

Company
 Voy con él  I go with him
 Voy sin él  I go without him

When you use "con" with "you" there will be a contraction resulting in: "contigo":

 Voy contigo  I go with you
 Voy sin ti  I go without you

We will soon discuss the personal pronouns that are used after prepositions.

Means
 Voy por/en avión  I go by plane
 Como con mis manos  I eat with my hands
Creator
 Hecho por mi  Made by me
Time
 Voy después de ti  I go after you
 Voy antes de ti  I go before you
 Voy hasta mañana  I go until tomorrow
 Estoy aqui desde ayer  I am here since yesterday
 Estoy aqui por tres dias  I am here for three days
 Vengo en tres dias  I come in three days
 Te escribo dentro de tres dias  I write you within three days

Pronouns after prepositions

Just like we had special pronouns for direct objects and indirect objects, there also are special pronouns to be used after prepositions, those are quite similar to the subject pronouns. Take a look at the table below:

 Mí  Me
 Ti  You
 Usted  You (formal)
 Él  Him
 Ella  Her
 Nosotros  Us
 Vosotros  You (plural)
 Ellos,Ellas  Them

Conjunctions

We have now shown you the most common prepositions. Try to practice alot with them because that's the best way to learn them. We will now move on to conjunctions. Conjunctions are the words that glue sentences together, the most obvious one we have already dealt with: "y" meaning "and". But there are far more such words which can glue sentences together in a certain way. Like we did with the prepositions, we will discuss these through examples.

 Voy y quiero viajar  I go and I want to travel
 Voy o quiero viajar  I go or I want to travel
 Voy, porque quiero viajar  I go because I want to travel
 Voy, pero quiero viajar  I go, but I want to travel
 Voy, para verte  I go so I can see you
 Voy aunque te veo  I go although I see you
 Voy si te veo  I go if I see you
 Voy mientras te veo  I go while I see you
 Voy cuando te veo  I go when I see you

Relative pronouns

This now takes us to a similar issue where subordinate clauses are involved. The subordinate clause in this case is related to a part of the main clause or the main clause entirely. Take a look at the following example:

 Sé que te veo  I know [that] I see you
 Sé lo que veo  I know what/ [that what] I see
 La ciudad donde estoy  The city where I am
 El hombre que te veo  The man who sees you
 La silla que está grande  The chair which is big
 Veo lo que está grande  I see what/that which is big

Note that while "that" in English can often be omitted, it can never be in Spanish. Every "which" or "what" that can more or less be substituted by "that which" must translate to "lo que" in Spanish. This happens when a so-called subordinate clause (the part of the sentence after "that", initiating a new embedded sentence) is in the direct object position of the sentence.


Vocabulary

 también  also/too
 aún  still
 ya  already
 solamente  only, just
 ahora  now
 la ciudad  the city

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to English:
1) Él es de españa también.
2) Veo que me ves.
3) Ya estoy en mi casa.
4) Voy a Barcelona con mi padre porque es una ciudad grande.
5) Veo a un hombre viejo que corre a la casa.
6) La silla que veo no es grande.
7) Ando delante de la casa.
8) Ve el edificio después de ti.
9) Solamente veo a un hombre con un perro que anda a través de mi casa nueva.
10) Tengo una silla para este perro.

Exercise B: Translate to Spanish:
1) Do you see that man with his woman?
2) I walk to the city because I can (puedo) see my new house.
3) My father's house {house of my father) is big although he is a small man.
4) I go to school with my father.
5) He has a cat, but he wants to have a dog.
6) They see what is new.
7) She goes when he goes to the house.

Solutions

We will use either the official or colloquial form of the pronouns, so multiple answer are possible.

Solution of Exercise A:
1) He is also from Spain.
2) I see that you see me.
3) I am already in my house.
4) I go to Barcelona with my father because it is a big city.
5) I see an old man who runs to the house.
6) The chair which I see is not big.
7) I walk in front of the house.
8) I see the building after you.
9) I only see a man with a dog who walks through my new house.
10) I have a chair for this dog.

Solution of Exercise B:
1) Ves a este hombre con su mujer?
2) Ando a la ciudad porque puedo ver mi casa nueva.
3) La casa de mi padre es grande, aunque es un hombre pequeño.
4) Voy a la escuela con mi padre.
5) Tiene un gato, pero quiere tener un perro.
6) Ven lo que es nuevo.
7) Ella va cuando él va a casa.


Lesson 8: Verb tenses

Verb Tense

Our knowledge of Spanish is already improving gradually! It is time we now move on from present tense and discuss other verb tenses as well. Spanish is, like all romance languages, rich of verb tenses. We will start with the past tense:

Past tense

Spanish, however, does not have a single past tense. It has two different past tenses, each to be used in their own distinct way. The two tenses are the Imperfect tense and the Preterite tense. The general difference is the following: The preterite tense is used for actions in the past that are completed while the imperfect tense is used for actions that have not ended yet or do not have a definite end. This includes habitual use. Let's first take a look at the conjugation of the Preterite tense for the three groups of regular verbs (-AR, -ER and -IR):

Preterite Tense
 HABLAR  TO SPEAK  COMER  TO EAT  VIVIR  TO LIVE
 Hablé  I spoke  Comí  I ate  Viví  I lived
 Hablaste  You spoke  Comiste  You ate  Vivíste  You lived
 Habló  He/she spoke  Com  He/she ate  Vivíó  He/she lived
 Hablamos  We spoke  Comimos  We ate  Vivimos  We lived
 Hablasteis  You spoke  Comisteis  You ate  Vivisteis  You lived
 Hablaron  They spoke  Comieron  They ate  Vivieron  They lived
Imperfect Tense

And now let's look at the imperfect tense:

 HABLAR  TO SPEAK  COMER  TO EAT  VIVIR  TO LIVE
 Hablaba  I spoke  Comía  I ate  Vivía  I lived
 Hablabas  You spoke  Comias  You ate  Vivías  You lived
 Hablaba  He/she spoke  Comía  He/she ate  Vivía  He/she lived
 Hablabamos  We spoke  Comíamos  We ate  Vivíamos  We lived
 Hablabais  You spoke  Comíais  You ate  Vivíais  You lived
 Hablaban  They spoke  Comían  They ate  Vivían  They lived

While we used translations like "We spoke", it is often also possible to translate using "We used to speak" or "We were speaking". We will now highlight some of the differences between the two tenses and teach when to use which one.

A certain adverb that appear in the sentence might give a good clue about what past tense to use. Adverbs like "siempre" ("always"), "frecuentamente" ("frequently"), "a menudo" ("sometimes") all ask for an imperfect tense because of their repetitive and unspecific nature. Adverbs like "ayer" ("yesterday"), "hoy" ("today") and "entonces" ("then") all ask for a preterite tense since they point to a specific point in time that is already over completely.

Also in sentences where you mention a specific begin and end-point or a duration, you would use the preterite tense, as in "I walked for three hours".

Below we will quickly show how to conjugate some irregular verbs we have seen in past lessons:

 Ser (pret): fui fuiste fue fuimos fuisteis fueron
 Ser (imp): era eras era erámos erais eran
 Estar (pret): estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron
 Estar (imp): estaba etc..
 Tener (pret): tuve tuviste tuvó tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron
 Tener (imp): tenía etc..

Perfect Tense

Like in English, Spanish has still an additional kind of past tense we haven't discussed yet: the perfect tense (which in turn comes in two different forms). Your head might be spinning right now, but don't worry about it because perfect tense in Spanish is very similar to perfect tense in English. Let's first refresh your memory by showing what perfect tense is. We will show both forms, present perfect and past perfect and illustrate this with the example verb "to speak".

 Present Perfect  Past Perfect
 I have spoken  I had spoken
 You have spoken  You had spoken
 He/she has spoken  He/she had spoken
 We have spoken  We had spoken
 You have spoken  You had spoken
 They have spoken  They had spoken

You see that perfect tense is composed of a form of the verb "to have" + the so-called participle of the verb in question, in this case the participle is: "spoken", which is an irregular verb. For regular verbs, the participle looks just like the past tense, for example: "hoped".

In Spanish, the same principle applies. The participle is formed by adding -ADO (for -AR verbs) or -IDO (for -ER and -IR verbs) to the present tense stem. So for our three example verbs we'd get: "hablado", "comido" and "vivido"

The Spanish present perfect and past perfect is composed using the auxiliary verb "haber" (which translates as "to have") plus a participle. For our three example verbs we can construct the following scheme for the present perfect:

 HABLAR  COMER  VIVIR
 He hablado  He comido  He vivido
 Has hablado  Has comido  Has vivido
 Ha hablado  Ha comido  Ha vivido
 Hemos hablado  Hemos comido  Hemos vivido
 Habéis hablado  Habéis comido  Habéis vivido
 Han hablado  Han comido  Han vivido

The past perfect tense is almost the same. The only difference is that the auxiliary verb "haber" is conjugated in the past tense (imperfect to be specific) , just like in English ("have" vs "had"). Consider the following table:

 HABLAR  COMER  VIVIR
 Había hablado  Había comido  Había vivido
 Habías hablado  Habías comido  Habías vivido
 Había hablado  Había comido  Había vivido
 Habíamos hablado  Habíamos comido  Habíamos vivido
 Habíais hablado  Habíais comido  Habíais vivido
 Habían hablado  Habían comido  Habían vivido

Future tense

Now we've covered some quite difficult material it's time for something easy, and fortunately Spanish future tense is just that. In English future tense can made by "going to" plus the infinitive form of the verb in question (meaning the full unconjugated form). In Spanish it can be formed by using a form of the verb "ir" ("to go", the preposition "a" and the infinitive verb. This will generate phrases like:

 Voy a hablar  I am going to speak
 Van a comer  They are going to eat

But the more common form of creating a future tense in English is by using the auxiliary verb "will", plus the infinitive. In Spanish no auxiliary verb is needed. Consider the following table for our three groups of regular verbs, the infinitive verb acts as stem in these examples, resulting in the same conjugation pattern for all three groups:

 HABLAR  TO SPEAK  COMER  TO EAT  VIVIR  TO LIVE
 Hablaré  I will speak  Comeré  I will eat  Viviré  I will live
 Hablarás  You will speak  Comerás  You will eat  Vivirás  You will live
 Hablará  He/she will speak  Comerá  He/she will eat  Vivirá  He/she will live
 Hablaremos  We will speak  Comeremos  We will eat  Viviremos  We will live
 Hablaréis  You will speak  Comeréis  You will eat  Viviréis  You will live
 Hablarán  They will speak  Comerán  They will eat  Vivirán  They will live

Conditional tense

Strongly related to the future tense it the conditional tense, where instead of "will", the past tense "would" is being used. In Spanish, a different but related conjugation pattern is being used as the following table illustrates:

 HABLAR  TO SPEAK  COMER  TO EAT  VIVIR  TO LIVE
 Hablaría  I would speak  Comería  I would eat  Viviría  I would live
 Hablarías  You would speak  Comerías  You would eat  Vivirías  You would live
 Hablaría  He/she would speak  Comería  He/she would eat  Viviría  He/she would live
 Hablaríamos  We would speak  Comeríamos  We would eat  Viviríamos  We would live
 Hablaríais  You would speak  Comeríais  You would eat  Viviríais  You would live
 Hablarían  They would speak  Comerían  They would eat  Vivirían  They would live

Well, that's enough material for this lesson. We have discussed some very important aspects of Spanish grammar, not all easy or obvious.

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to English:
1) Hablé al hombre que has visto también.
2) Yo hablaba frequentamente.
3) Yo viviría contigo.
4) Tuvó un perro que andaba siempre a la casa.
5) Habíamos visto (participle of ver) el perro.
6) Comé después de andar a la casa.

Exercise B: Translate to Spanish:
1) He is going to go to the house.
2) He will eat us.
3) We frequently gave him a present.
4) I see her because you see her too.
5) I am speaking to my father.
6) They would live in the house.

Solutions

Solution of Exercise A:
1) I spoke to the man who you have seen as well.
2) I spoke frequently.
3) I would live with you.
4) I had a dog who always walked to the house.
5) We had seen the dog.
6) I ate after going to the house.

Solution of Exercise B:
1) Va a andar a la casa.
2) Nos comerá.
3) Frecuentamente le dabamos un regalo.
4) La veo porque la ves también.
5) Estoy hablando a mi padre.
6) Vivirían en la casa.


Lesson 9: Reflexive Verbs, Gerund, and Degrees of Comparison

In our previous lesson we have obtained a lot of information about Spanish verbs, however we have not yet found the time to discuss reflexive verbs. That we will do now.

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive verbs are accompanied by a so-called reflexive pronoun, the following table illustrates the reflexive verb "to wash oneself" and the Spanish equivalent "lavarse". Note that in these infinitive verbs forms, we can already note the reflexive pronoun "-se" attached to the infinitive verb.

 Me lavo  I wash myself
 Te lavas  You wash yourself
 [Él] se lava  He washes himself
 [Ella] se lava  She washes herself
 Nos lavamos  We wash ourselves
 Vos laváis  You wash yourselves
 Se lavan  They wash themselves

Gerunds

In English, we are all familiar with the continuous tense, better known as the "-ing" tense. In Spanish you will find this less, but it does exist. While in English we use "to be +ing", the Spanish use "estoy +gerund". The gerund of a regular verb can be easily constructed by taking the present tense stem and adding "-ando" for -AR verbs, or "-iendo" for -ER and -IR verbs. Consider the following example:

 Estoy hablando  I am speaking
 Estás hablando  You are speaking
 Está comiendo  He/she is eating
 Estamos comiendo  We are eating
 Estáis viviendo  You are living
 Están viviendo  They are living

Degrees of Comparison

Adjectives and adverbs can be modified according to degrees of comparison to their meaning BIGGER or BIGGEST. In English we obtain pairs of three like: "late - later - latest". In Spanish this is always done by adding "más" ("more" or "el/la más" ("most". So "big - bigger - biggest" becomes "grande - más grande - el más grande".

When used adjectively, it will look like this:

 La casa grande  The big house
 La casa más grande  The biggest house
 La casa está más grande  The house is bigger
 La casa está menos grande  The house is less big

Like the last example illustrates, you can also use the opposite of "más", which is "menos", meaning "less".

Now we will take a look at comparisons of inequality and later we will discuss comparisons of equality. The sentence below illustrates a comparison of inequality:

 Yo soy más grande que  I am bigger than you
 Él es más pequeño que nosotros  He is smaller than we

And an example of comparisons of equality:

 Soy tan grande como  I am as big as you
 Es tan pequeño como nosotros  He is as small as we

Exercises

There are no exercises anymore...


Lesson 10: Filling the gaps

In this lesson we will discuss some small issues we haven't gotten around yet. You will see things you might have been wanting to know all along..

Counting

 0 cero
 1 uno
 2 dos
 3 tres
 4 cuatro
 5 cinco
 6 seis
 7 siete
 8 ocho
 9 nueve
 10 diez
 11 once
 12 doce
 13 trece
 14 catorce
 15 quince
 16 dieciséis
 17 diecisiete
 18 dieciocho
 19 diecinueve
 20 veinte
 21 veintiuno
 22 veintidos
 23 veintitres
 24 veinticuatro
 30 treinta
 31 treinta y uno
 32 treinta y dos
 40 cuarenta
 48 cuarenta y ocho
 50 cincuenta
 60 sesenta
 70 setenta
 80 ochenta
 90 noventa
 100 cien(to)
 101 ciento uno
 153 ciento cincuenta y tres
 200 doscientos
 1000 mil
 10000 diez mil
 100000 cien mil
 1000000 milion

Days of the Week

Unlike in English, the days of the week do not receive a capital first letter.

 Monday  lunes
 Tuesday  martes
 Wednesday  miércoles
 Thursday  jueves
 Friday  viernes
 Saturday  sábado
 Sunday  domingo

All days of the week are masculine. A preposition is often not necessary, but articles are almost always used for the days of the week:

 Vengo el lunes  I come on Monday

The Months of the Year

Like the days of the week, the months of the year are never capitalized:

 January  enero
 February  febrero
 March  marzo
 April  abril
 May  mayo
 June  junio
 July  julio
 August  agosto
 September  septiembre
 October  octubre
 November  noviembre
 December  diciembre

The preposition used to point at a month is "en", just like in English.

Imperative

There is still a verb tense we have left undiscussed, the so-called imperative tense/mood. This is used to give commands. There are however different forms for the positive and negative expressions. See the table for each of the three groups of regular verbs:

 HABLAR  TO SPEAK  COMER  TO EAT  VIVIR  TO LIVE
 Habla!  Speak! (informal)  Come!  Eat! (informal)  Vive!  Live! (informal)
 No hables!  Don't speak! (informal)  No comas!  Don't eat! (informal)  No vivas!  Don't live! (informal)
 Hable!  Speak! (formal)  Coma!  Eat! (formal)  Viva!  Live! (formal)
 No hable!  Don't speak! (formal)  No coma!  Don't eat! (formal)  No viva!  Don't live! (formal)

We can also form this into a "Let`s ..." expression:

 HABLAR  TO SPEAK  COMER  TO EAT  VIVIR  TO LIVE
 Hablemos!  Let's speak!  Comamos!  Let's eat!  Vivamos!  Let's live!)

Correlatives

Below you will see a very extensive scheme that will show you words like "somebody":

 Unspecific  Interrogative  Specific  All-inclusive  All-exclusive
 Quality  Some/any kind of
 Algun tipo de
 What kind of?
 ¿Qué tipo de?
 That kind of, such a
 Ese tipo
 Every kind of, all kinds of
 Cada tipo
 No kind of
 Ningún tipo de
 Reason  For some reason
 Por algun motivo
 Why?
 Por qué?
 Therefore, so
 Por eso, Por lo tanto
 For every reason
 Por cualquier motivo
 For no reason
 Por ningún motivo
 Time  Sometime, anytime, ever
 Alguna vez, algún dia
 When?
 Cuándo?
 Then
 Entonces
 Always
 Siempre
 Never
 Nunca, jamás
 Location  Somewhere,anywhere
 En alguna parte, en algún lugar
 Where?
 ¿Dónde?
 There
 ahí, aca
 Everywhere
 En todas partes
 Nowhere
 En ninguna parte
 Direction  Somewhere, anywhere
 A alguna parte, a algún lugar
 Where to?
 Adónde?
 [to] there
 por ahí, por aca
 [to] everywhere
 a todas partes
 [to] nowhere
 a ninguna parte
 Manner  Somehow,anyhow
 De algún modo, de alguna manera
 How?
 ¿Cómo?
 Like that, so
 así,de tal modo/manera
 In every way
 De cualquier modo
 In no way
 De ningún modo
 Possession  Someone`s, anyone`s
 de alguien
 Whose?
 ¿De quién?, ¿Cuyo?
 That one's, his, hers, theirs
 Suyo
 Everybody's, everyone's
 de todo el mundo
 Nobody's
 de nadie
 Object  Something, anything
 Algo
 What?
 ¿Qué?
 That
 Eso
 Everything
 Todo
 Nothing
 Nada
 Quantity  Some
 Alguno(s)
 How much?, How many?
 ¿Cuánto(s)?
 That/so much, That/so many
 Tanto(s)
 All [of it]
 Todo(s)
 None [of it]
 Ninguno
 Person  Somebody, anybody
 Alguien
 Who?
 ¿Quién?
 That one, he,she,they
 Ese, Él, ella, ellos/ellas
 Everybody, everyone
 Todo el mundo, todos
 Nobody
 Nadie
 Adjective  Some,any
 Algún(a)
 which?,what?
 ¿Cuál?, ¿Qué?
 That
 Ese
 Every, each, all
 Cada
 None,no
 Ninguno

Exercises

There are no exercises anymore.


End Of Part Two

This is the end of the basic Spanish course. Now you've learned some of the basics of this fascinating language. In the future we might create a part three of this course but for now this is all. But you can learn more by visiting the UniLang Public Bookmarks or by taking a look at the Basic Wordlist Spanish.

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