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Esperanto for Beginners - Part II

Part Two

Lesson 6: Analyzing Sentences

This lesson will introduce a very important grammar rule in Esperanto. You should study the rule as best as you can and practise a lot! We'll start by analysing a sentence, meaning that we will name all it's parts.
In the sentence: "The boy plays in the garden", we call "plays" the verb. This indicates an action that is occurring. "The boy" is the subject of the sentence. This indicates the person/animal or object that is the subject of the action. In this case, the one who plays. "in the garden" is a definition of location.

Definitions With & Without Prepositions

Because we can find a preposition (the word "in") in the definition "in the garden", we call it a definition of location with preposition.
A preposition is a word that indicates a relation between various entities. For example: in, on, at, before, after, in front of, between, etc... Those are all prepositions. The translation of the sentence "The boy plays in the garden" is "La knabo ludas en la ĝardeno".
"La knabo" is the subject, "ludas" is the verb, and "en la ĝardeno" is a definition of location with preposition.
Some more sentences follow to demonstrate this, we'll make the definition bold, and the first bold word will be the preposition:
La birdo sidas sur la domo
La ŝuoj staras antaǔ la seĝo
La knabino kuŝas en la lito
Ni promenas al la urbo

Now let's continue with the next sentence: "The father writes a letter". In this sentence we see "the father" as subject, "writes" as the verb and "a letter" as the definition. But, as you can see, there's no preposition in this sentence! That's why we call this a "definition without preposition", more commonly known as "the direct object". The direct object can be obtained by asking yourself the question "WHO/WHAT + main verb + subject ?", in our sample: "What is the father writing?", the answer to that is "a letter", which is the direct object. Now let's translate this into Esperanto: "La patro skribas leteron". What do you see? An -N behind letero, that's right. In Esperanto, all direct objects get an extra -N so the difference between the direct object and the subject can be spotted. Some more sample sentences:

 The boy eats an apple  La knabo manĝas pomon
 The girl sells flowers  La knabino vendas florojn

So keep in mind that:
Definitions without a preposition (direct objects) get an extra -N
Definitions with a preposition (which are not direct objects) get no extra -N

Now compare these two sentences:

 Mi havas belan libron  I have a nice book
 Mi havas belajn librojn  I have nice books

You see the adjective (bela) also getting an extra N, and in it's plural form also an extra J. Note that the N ALWAYS appears after the J.

Note that a definition doesn't always have to appear at the end of a sentence. Word order in Esperanto is very flexible:

 En la ĝardeno ludas la infanoj  La infanoj ludas en la ĝardeno  The children playin the garden
 Pipon fumas la patro  La patro fumas pipon  The father smokes a piple

Some other sample sentences:

 He learns Esperanto  Li lernas Esperanton.
 George steals an apple from the garden  El la ĝardeno George ŝtelas pomon.
 He says "good evening"  Li diras: "bonan vesperon"
 Are you writing your girlfriend a long letter?  Ĉu vi skribas al via amikino longan leteron?
 We visit our friends  Ni vizitas niajn amikojn.
 The childs loves the father and the mother  La infano amas la patron kaj la patrinon.
 Tomorrow we'll visit the convention of the Esperanto-course  Morgaǔ ni vizitos (future tense!) la kunvenon de la Esperanto-kurso.

Vocabulary

 lingvo  language
 banano  banana
 okulo  eye
 biciklo  bike
 blanka  white
 mordi  to bite
 helpi  to help
 to porti  to wear
 post  after
 ses  six

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to English:
1) La patrino aǔdas la infanon.
2) George havas belan libron.
3) Li aĉetis (bought) belan novan ĉapelon.
4) Ĉu li aĉetis brunan ĉapelon?
5) Mia filino diras al la najbarino bonan tagon.
6) Ni vidis la blankajn kolombojn.
7) Ni lernis la internacian lingvon.
8) Post ses lecionoj vi povas skribi mallongan leteron.
9) La hundo mordas la katon.
10) La semajno havas sep tagojn.
11) Ŝi helpas la virinon.
12) Mi vidas, ke la viro portas belan, grandan nigran ĉapelon.
13) Mi vidas lin (him).

Exercise B: Translate to Esperanto:
1) A big tree stands in our garden.
2) This tree has green leaves.
3) I also see beautiful big red tulips in our garden.
4) My neighbour eats an apple and two bananas.
5) I have two ears and two eyes.
6) You have to tell your name to me.
7) From my aunt I received a long letter.
8) My uncle wrote no letter, but he has a new bike for me.
9) Did my father give a dog to her?

Solutions

Solution for Exercise A:
1) The mother hears the child.
2) George has a nice book.
3) He bought a beautiful new hat.
4) Did he buy a brown hat?
5) My daughter says "good day" to the neighbour. (a woman in this case)
6) We saw the white pigeons.
7) We learned the international language.
8) After six lessons you are able to write a short letter.
9) The dog bites the cat.
10) The week has seven days.
11) She helps the woman.
12) I see that the man wears a nice big black hat.
13) I see him.

Solution for Exercise B:
1) Granda arbo staras en nia ĝardeno.
2) Ĉi tiu arbo havas verdajn foliojn.
3) Mi vidis ankaǔ belajn grandajn ruĝajn tulipojn en nia ĝardeno.
4) Mia najbaro manĝas pomon kaj du bananojn.
5) Mi havas du orelojn kaj du okulojn.
6) Vi devas diri vian nomon al mi.
7) De mia onklino mi ricevis longan leteron.
8) Mia onklo ne skribis leteron, sed li havas novan biciklon por mi.
9) Ĉu mia patro donis hundon al ŝi?


Lesson 7: Suffixes

Suffixes

In this lesson we'll discuss some more suffixes in order to be able to form more words. The suffix -IL indicates a tool or means by which something can be accomplished.

 flugi  to fly
 flugilo  wing
 kombi  to comb
 kombilo  (a) comb
 veturi  to drive
 veturilo  vehicle
 tondi  to cut/to snip
 tondilo  scissors
 tranĉi  to cut
 tranĉilo  knife
 helpi  to help
 helpilo  (an) aid

The suffix -IST indicates profession:

 presi  to print
 presisto  printer (not the device but the man/woman)
 instrui  to teach
 instruisto  teacher
 baki  to bake
 bakisto  baker
 ĝardeno  garden
 ĝardenisto  gardener
 arto  art
 artisto  artist
 dento  tooth
 dentisto  dentist
 ŝuo  shoe
 ŝuisto  shoemaker

The suffix -ID indicates a descendant or child.

 ĉevalo  horse
 ĉevalido  colt
 ŝafo  sheep
 ŝafido  lamb
 reĝo  king
 reĝido  prince

Notice: The use of pre- and suffixes is learned by using them over and over, and it greatly expands one's vocabulary. When one, for example, learns the word "labori" (to work) then one is also capable to form the word "worker", which is "laboristo". Likewise, if you see "segi" ("to saw") then you also know how to form the word "the saw": "la segilo". You can see that with a few basic words, you can already create a huge number of other words!

Directional "N"

Some prepositions (on, in, through, etc.) can express both a static location (the answer to the question WHERE?) as well as a dynamic direction (the answer to the question WHERETO?). In Esperanto, one should put a so-called directional N behind the word when it is a dynamic direction and not yet a state of being at a certain location. An example:

 He walks in the garden  Li marŝas en la ĝardeno  (He already is in the garden and he's walking there now)
 He walks into the garden  Li marŝas en la ĝardenon  (He was for example somewhere on the street and is now walking into the garden)

This case was easy because in english we also use different prepositions for these two cases (in vs. into). Now two other examples:

 The book is on the table  La libro estas sur la tablo  (it's a static location)
 He puts the book on the table  Li metas la libron sur la tablon  (it's a direction and a movement)
 He walks through the forest  Li marŝas tra la arbaro  (he's walking in the forest)
 He walks through the forest  Li marŝas tra la arbaron  (he walk in and out of the forest)

The last one, especially, was a bit more tricky. Here you see that the English language is not always clear on what exactly the meaning is of a preposition. Esperanto does make a difference by adding an n and eliminating any doubt regarding the meaning of the sentence.
Remember: After the words EL, AL, ĜIS and DE we never use a directional N because these prepositions already indicate a direction themselves. They can't be used statically.

 Mi iras al la urbo  I go to the city
 Li venas el la domo  He comes out of the house
 Ni promenos ĝis la placo  We'll walk till the square
 La vazo falis de la tablo  The vaze fell from the table

Vocabulary

 lumo  light
 haki  to chop
 kudri  to sew
 salti  to jump
 voli  to want
 gladi  to iron
 demandi  to ask
 viziti  to visit
 konduktoro  conductor/ticket collector
 vesto  piece of clothing
 pri  about/regarding
 verki  to write (a novel)
 alia  other

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to Esperanto:
1) bad
2) darkness
3) worker
4) rain (as in it's raining cats and dogs or pooring with rain)
5) huge
6) teacher (female)
7) little lamb
8) axe
9) to toil
10) needle

Exercise B: Translate to English:
1) La kato saltas de la seĝo sur la tablon.
2) Mia patrino volis gladi.
3) Ŝi demandis al mi: "Johano, ĉu vi vidas mian novan gladilon?"
4) Sed mi respondis: "Ne, mi ne vidas vian gladilon" kaj mia patrino ne povis gladi.
5) La reĝo kaj la reĝido vizitis nian malgrandan urbon.
6) La konduktoro diras al ni, ke alia tramo ne venos.
7) La birdo flugas el la ĉambro, sed la kolomboj flugas en la ĉambron.
8) La vestoj de la reĝidino estis belegaj.

Exercise C: Translate to Esperanto:
1) The (female) teacher tells the little girl that she writes beautifully.
2) The green bird flies out of the room.
3) I see a thin needle on the floor.
4) She speaks about the gray hat of the old shoemaker.
5) Who teaches the children?
6) The artist writes a nice, thick book.
7) We speak about the brown colts.
8) Did you also visit the convention?

Solutions

Solution for Exercise A:
1) malbona
2) mallumo
3) laboristo
4) pluvego
5) grandega
6) instruistino
7) ŝafideto
8) hakilo
9) laboregi
10) kudrilo

Solution for Exercise B:
1) The cat jumps from the chair onto the table.
2) My mother wants to iron.
3) She asked me: "Johano, did you see my new iron?"
4) But I responded: "No, I do not see your iron", and my mother could not iron.
5) The king and the prince visited our small city.
6) The conductor says to us that the tram won't come.
7) The bird flies out of the room, but the pigeons fly into the room.
8) The clothing of the princess were splendid.

Solution for Exercise C:
1) La instruistino diras al la knabineto, ke ŝi bele skribas.
2) La verda birdo flugas el la ĉambro.
3) Mi vidas sur la planko maldikan kudrilon.
4) Ŝi parolas pri la griza ĉapelo de la maljuna ŝuisto.
5) Kiu instruas la infanojn?
6) La artisto verkas belan, dikan libron.
7) Ni parolas pri la brunaj ĉevalidoj.
8) Ĉu ankaǔ vi vizitis la kunvenon?

Expressions

 Hello  Saluton
 See you later / Goodbye  Ĝis revido
 See you soon  Ĝis baldaǔ
 As big as possible  Kiel eble plej granda.

Lesson 8: Suffixes, cont.

Suffixes, cont.

In this lesson you'll get to see three new suffixes, so the number of words you can form with those severely increases.

The suffix -EJ indicates the place where the action is occuring, or where persons or objects related to the baseword can be found.

 lerni  to learn
 lernejo  school
 labori  to work
 laborejo  workplace
 preĝi  to pray
 preĝejo  church
 legi  to read
 legejo  reading chamber
 bovo  bull/beef
 bovejo  cowshed

The suffix -ESTR indicates a boss/leader of the object referred to by the baseword:

 ŝipo  ship
 ŝipestro  captain
 urbo  city
 urbestro  mayor
 lernejo  school
 lernejestro  principal/headmaster/rector

The suffix -UL indicates the person who has the property expressed by the baseword:

 griza  gray
 grizulo  gray-haired man
 malsana  Ill/sick
 malsanulo  sick person
 malsanulejo  hospital

You see, by learning a baseword (sana for example), you can create a huge number of different, though related, words by adding suffixes and/or prefixes.


Vocabulary

 pedanta  pigheaded
 kompreni  to understand
 kvazaŭ  as-if
 oni  one (as in: "one is supposed to know such a thing")
 feliĉa  happy
 perdi  to lose
 avara  misery
 mensogi  to lie
 saga  wise/smart
 pentri  to paint
 neniu  nobody
 fali  to fall
 nenio  nothing
 dek du  twelve
 ĉio  everything
 monato  month
 kiam  when
 lasta  last/final
 diversa  different
 ankoraŭ  still
 tre  very
 por  for

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to English:
1) Nia najbaro, sinjoro Smith, estas pedantulo.
2) Li parolas kvazaǔ li scias ĉion.
3) Kato kaj hundo estas kvarpieduloj (kvar = four, piedo = foot).
4) Jaro havas dek du monatojn.
5) La malfeliĉulo falis en la akvon.
6) En la preĝejo oni preĝas.
7) Kiam vi venis?
8) Mi venis sabaton kaj mi foriros (for = away, iri = go) lundon.
9) La riĉulino donis dolaron al la malriĉa blindulo.
10) Ĉu vi komprenis la lecionon de la instruisto?

Exercise B: Translate to Esperanto:
1) Pigheaded people (translate to one word!) are not wise.
2) The good man (translate to one word!) lost a lot of money.
3) The pigheaded man (one word!) did not give anything to the blind woman (one word!).
4) The captain of the ship bought a book.
5) The book cost five dollars.
6) Are you a liar?
7) The blind gray-haired man (one word) went into the garden.
8) The knife fell on the ground and nobody saw it (=ĝin).
9) The paintress worked in our workplace.
10) Wednesday they will go out of town.

Solutions

Solution for Exercise A:
1) Our neighbour, mister Smith, is a pigheaded person/man.
2) He speaks as-if he knows everything.
3) A cat and a dog are four-legged (literally: four-feet) animals.
4) A year has twelve months.
5) The unhappy person/man fell into the water.
6) In the church one prays.
7) When did you come?
8) I came Saturday and I went away (on) Monday.
9) The rich lady/woman gave a dollar to the poor blind person/man.
10) Did you understand the lesson of the teacher?

Solution for Exercise B:
1) Pedantuloj ne estas saĝaj.
2) La bonulo perdis multan monon.
3) La pedantulo ne donis ion al la blindulino.
4) La ŝipestro aĉetis libron.
5) La libro kostis kvin dolarojn.
6) Ĉu vi estas mensogulo?
7) La blinda grizulo iris en la ĝardenon.
8) La tranĉilo falis sur la plankon kaj neniu vidis ĝin.
9) La pentristino laboris en nia laborejo.
10) Merkredon ili iros el la urbo.


Lesson 9: Forming Words

In the previous lesson, we've seen how to form words by adding suffixes and prefixes. But words can also be formed by changing it's ending. For example, you can make nouns out of adjectives, adjectives out of verbs, verbs out of adverbs, and so on..

 kanti  to sing
 la kanto  the song
 devi  to have to (must)
 la devo  the duty
 ami  to love
 la amo  the love
 deziri  to wish/to desire
 la deziro  the wish/the desire
 promeni  to walk
 la promeno  the walk
 vivi  to live
 la vivo  the life
 viziti  to visit
 la vizito  the visit
 la frato  the brother
 frata  brotherly
 kuraĝi  to dare / to have courage
 kuraĝa  couragous
 kuraĝo  courage

Compound Words

Esperanto also has a large number of compound words, words that exist out of multiple other words. Some examples:

 ĝardeno  garden
 benko  bench
 ĝardenbenko  garden-bench
 akvo  water
 birdo  bird
 akvobirdo  water-bird
 dormo  sleep
 ĉambro  room
 dormĉambro  bedroom (sleeping-room)

You can see in the samples, that the final o of the first word is omitted sometimes. That's not done when the word is otherwise hard to pronounce, so instead of manĝĉambro, manĝoĉambro is said because manĝĉambro is very hard to pronounce..

Numbers

It's now time to learn how to count in Esperanto, so here we go:

 1  unu
 2  du
 3  tri
 4  kvar
 5  kvin
 6  ses
 7  sep
 8  ok
 9  naǔ
 10  dek
 11  dek unu
 12  dek du
 13  dek tri
 20  dudek
 21  dudek unu
 23  dudek tri
 29  dudek naǔ
 30  tridek
 40  kvardek
 50  kvindek
 70  sepdek
 90  naǔdek
 100  cent
 500  kvincent
 1000  mil
 10.000  dekmil

The Months

You already know the names of the days in Esperanto, now let's meet the months in chronological order:

 januaro  January
 februaro  February
 marto  March
 aprilo  April
 majo  May
 junio (stress the i)  June
 julio  July
 aǔgusto  August
 septembro  September
 oktobro  October
 novembro  November
 decembro  December

Subject/Object Pronouns

To refresh our memory, let's repeat the subject/object pronouns:

 mi  I (me)
 vi  you
 li  he (his)
 ŝi  she (her)
 ĝi  it
 ni  we
 vi  you
 ili  they

Possessive Adjectives

The possessive adjectives in Esperanto are formed by adding an -a to the subject pronoun:

 mia  my
 via  your
 lia  his
 ŝia  her
 ĝia  it's
 nia  our
 via  your
 ilia  their
 mia ĝardeno  my garden
 ŝia biciklo  her bike
 via letero  your letter

It's logical that the ending of these words is -A, because they are adjectives and tell something about a noun. Also note that you have to make them agree in number, just like any other adjectives:

 grandaj domoj  big houses
 niaj domoj  our houses
 niaj grandaj domoj  our big houses

Vocabulary

 kiam?  when?
 kial?  why?
 kie?  where?
 kiel?  how? (in what way?)
 popolo  people
 stacidomo  (train)station
 trafiko  traffic
 monto  mountain
 en la mezo  in the centre
 per  by (means)
 presi  to push
 kompreni  to understand
 bezoni  to need
 kuiri  to cook
 montri  to show
 alta  high
 danĝera  dangerous
 komuna  common

The Esperanto Alphabet

Below you'll find the complete Esperanto alphabet, containing 28 letters:

La Alfabeto
Aa Bb Cc Ĉĉ Dd Ee Ff Gg
Ĝĝ Hh Ĥĥ Ii Jj Ĵĵ Kk Ll
Mm Nn Oo Pp Rr Ss Ŝŝ Tt
Uu Ǔǔ Vv Zz

Below you can see it again using the X substitution system:
a, b, c, cx, d, e, f, g, gx, h, hx, i, j, jx, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, sx, t, u, ux, v, z
Pronunciation of the alphabet is very easy. Vowels are just pronounced as usual and an -O is put behind the consonants. So you get: a, bo, co, ĉo, do, etc...

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate to English:
1) Kiam estas la lasta leciono de nia kurso?
2) Tion nia instruisto ankoraǔ ne scias.
3) Kial ni lernas Esperanton?
4) Ĉar la diversaj popoloj de la tuta mondo kun multaj diversaj lingvoj bezonas komunan internacian lingvon.
5) Kie estas via instruistino?
6) Ŝi estis en la ĝardeno, sed nun ŝi estas en via kuirejo.
7) Kiel oni povas iri al la stacidomo, sinjoro?
8) Vi povas iri per tramo, sinjorino.
9) La trafiko en niaj grandaj urboj estas tre danĝera por niaj infanoj.
10) Kial viaj infanoj ludas en mia ĝardeno?

Exercise B: Translate to Esperanto:
1) We eat our cheese.
2) The three cats jumped on the garden-bench.
3) My garden is big, it is square.
4) Does your daughter have seven fish?
5) The hill is 65 meters high.
6) When will your children leave?
7) I do not understand you.
8) Where is the train-station?
9) The train-station is in the centre of our city.
10) Can you show me (to me) the route to the train-station?

Solutions

Solution for Exercise A:
1) When is the last lesson of our course?
2) This our teacher also doesn't know.
3) Why do we learn Esperanto?
4) Because the different people of the entire world with many different languages need a common international language.
5) Where is your teacher?
6) She was in the garden, but now she is in your kitchen.
7) How can one go to the train-station, sir?
8) You can go by tram, madam.
9) The traffic in our big cities is very dangerous for our children.
10) Why do your children play in my garden?

Solution for Exercise B:
1) Ni manĝas nian fromaĝon.
2) La tri katoj saltis sur la ĝardenbenkon
3) Mia ĝardeno estas granda, ĝi estas kvadrata.
4) Ĉu via filino havas sep fiŝojn?
5) La monteto estas sesdek kvin metrojn alta.
6) Kiam viaj infanoj foriros?
7) Mi ne komprenas vin.
8) Kie estas la stacidomo?
9) La stacidomo estas en la mezo de nia urbo.
10) Ĉu vi povas montri al mi la vojon al la stacidomo?


Lesson 10: Writing a Letter

In this lesson, we won't introduce any new grammar. Instead, we'll write a letter to demonstrate that even after only 9 lessons, a nice letter can already be written!


Vocabulary

 rakonti  to tell
 konstati  to find that/to state/to ascertain
 inviti  to invite
 ŝpari  to save (money)
 vojaĝi  to travel
 akcepti  to accept
 esperi  to hope
 korespondi  to correspond
 atendi  to wait
 ferioj  vacation/holidays
 ĝojo  joy
 saluto  greeting
 pacienco  patience
 koro  heart
 poŝtmarko  stamp
 sukceso  success/good luck
 vortaro  dictionary
 adreso  address
 sanstato  health
 nun  now
 ĉi tiu  this
 kiam  when
 kelkaj  some
 agrabla  pleased
 apenaŭ  almost
 baldaŭ  soon
 volonte  willingly/gladly
 kompreneble  naturally/of course/understandably
 denove  again
 do  so
 jam  already

Prepositions

Here follows a list of almost all prepositions. These are all very important so we suggest you memorize them!

 al  to
 ĉe  near, at (as in "at his home")
 apud  besides/near
 sur  on
 sub  under
 tra  through
 pro  because of
 de  from/of
 ekster  outside
 inter  between
 sen  without
 antaǔ  in front of/before
 post  after
 por  for (as in: this present is for you)
 laǔ  according to
 kun  with
 ĝis  to (as in: from 1 to 3), (Un)til
 per  by (means)
 dum  while
 ĉirkaǔ  around
 trans  over
 malgraǔ  in spite of
 krom  except
 anstataǔ  instead of
 en  in
 preter  alongside
 kontraǔ  against
 pri  about
 malantaǔ  behind

There are also three more prepositions: da, je, and po, whose meaning will be explained later.

Exercises

Exercise A: Translate this (fictional) letter to English:

Groningen (Nederlando), la 10-an de aǔgusto 2000

Kara amiko,

Hieraǔ mi ricevis vian longan leteron. Kaj kun granda ĝojo mi konstatis ke mi, post naǔ lecionoj esperantaj, povis kompreni la tutan leteron! Kelkajn vortojn mi ne komprenis, sed mi havas vortaron. Vi skribis pri via bela urbo Milano kaj mi tre volonte akceptas vian koran inviton. Mi volonte venos kaj mi esperas, ke mi havos tre agrablajn feriojn en via lando. Vi povos montri al mi la belajn stratojn kaj belegajn domojn kaj vi povos rakonti pri la historio de via urbo. Mi apenaǔ povas atendi ĝis la somero. Kompreneble mi invitas ankaǔ vin por veni al mia lando. Kun malpacienco mi atendas vian respondon. Mi dankas vin pro la belaj poŝtmarkoj.

Kun multaj amikaj salutoj,
Via amiko

Exercise B: Translate this (fictional) letter to Esperanto:

Milan (Italy), August 17, 2000

Dear friend,

In good health I received your letter. Of course I want to come, but....this year I can not, because my friend from London will come. This year I will not go away so I can save money for the trip/voyage to The Netherlands. I wish to see your beautiful city, the sea and the tulips. My brother also learns Esperanto now, because he was jealous when he read your letter. He wishes to correspond with an Esperantist from Copenhagen. He already received an address from another friend from Oslo. Will you soon write a new letter? Good luck with Esperanto!

Greetings,
Your Friend

Solutions

Solution for Exercise A:

Groningen (The Netherlands), the 10th of August 2000

Dear friend,

Yesterday I received your long letter. And with great joy I found that I, after nine Esperanto lessons, could understand the entire letter! I didn't understand some words, but I have a dictionary. You wrote about the nice city of Milan and I gladly/willingly accept your kind invitation. I'll gladly/willingly come and I hope, that I will have a very nice vacation in your country. You will be able to show me the beautiful streets and splendid homes and you will be able to tell about the history of your city. I can hardly wait until the summer. Of course I also invite you to come to my country. With eager I await your response. I thank you for the nice stamps!

With many friendly greetings:
Your Friend

Solution for Exercise B:

Milano, la 17-an de agosto, 2000

Kara amiko,

En bona sanstato mi recivis vian leteron. Kompreneble mi volonte venos, sed...ĉi tiun jaron mi ne povas, ĉar mia amiko de Londono venos. Ĉi tiun jaron mi ne foriros do mi povas ŝpari por la vojaĝo al Nederlando. Mi deziras vidi vian belan urbon, la maron kaj la tulipojn. Ankaǔ mia frato nun studas Esperanton, ĉar li estis ĵaluza kiam li legis vian leteron. Li deziras korespondi kun Esperantisto de Kopenhaĝo. Li jam recivis adreson de alia amiko de Oslo. Ĉu vi skribos novan leteron baldaǔ? Sukceson kun Esperanton!

Salutojn,
Via amiko


End Of Part Two

This is the end of part two. You can continue with part III of this course or find a lot of information on Esperanto grammar on the UniLang site. And now you know the basics you will probably manage to learn more with our other aids.

Continue to part III

Thanks for your interest in this course! If you discovered any mistakes or you just want to say something then please let us know . We do need feedback!

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