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Bulgarian for Beginners

Bulgarian is a Southern Slavic language with approximately 12 million speakers in many countries. Beyond Bulgaria, it is also spoken in but also in Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Romania, Ukraine, Greece, and even Canada, USA, Australia, Germany and Spain.

Bulgarian was the first Slavic language to be written, starting in the 9th century using the Glagolitic alphabet. That was gradually replaced by an early version of the Cyrillic alphabet.

Part one of this course is only intended for absolute beginners.

Part One - The Basics

Урок № 1 / Lesson 1: Pronunciation

Pronunciation

Bulgarian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet. Modern Bulgarian Cyrillic has 30 letters:

А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ь Ю Я

Letter Name IPA value Approx. English sound"
 А а  а  [ a ]  as a in English "far, father"
 Б б  бъ  [ b ]  as b in English "bird"
 В в  въ  [ v ]  as v in English "victory"
 Г г  гъ  [ g ]  as g in English "go"
 Д д  дъ  [ d ]  as d in English "delay"
 Е е  е  [ ɛ ]  as e in English "pet"
 Ж ж  жъ  [ ʒ ]  as s in English "vision"
 З з  зъ  [ z ]  as z in English "zealot"
 И и  и  [ i ]  as ee in English "need", as y in English "happy"
 Й й  и кратко  [ j ]  as y in English "yes", "you"
 К к  къ  [ k ]  as k in English "sketch"
 Л л  лъ  [ l ], [ ɫ ]  as ll in English "fill", as l in English "blue"
 М м  мъ  [ m ]  as m in English "meat"
 Н н  нъ  [ n ]  as n in English "need"
 О о  о  [ ɔ ]  as o in English "fork"
 П п  пъ  [ p ]  as p in English "speak"
 Р р  ръ  [ ɾ ]  as the Scottish r
 С с  съ  [ s ]  as s in English "soap"
 Т т  тъ  [ t ]  as t in English "stop"
 У у  у  [ u ]  as oo in English "food"
 Ф ф  фъ  [ f ]  as f in English "fast"
 Х х  хъ  [ x ]  as ch in Scottish loch
 Ц ц  цъ  [ ʦ ]  as ts in English "cats"
 Ч ч  чъ  [ ʧ ]  as ch in English "cherry"
 Ш ш  шъ  [ ʃ ]  as s in English "sure"
 Щ щ  щъ  [ ʃt ] ʃ + t"
 Ъ ъ  ер голям  [ ɤ ]  as in English "bird"
 Ь ь  ер малък No phonetic value*"
 Ю ю  ю  [ ju ]  as English "you", as ew in English "new"
 Я я  я  [ ja ], [ jɤ ]  as ya in English "yard"

ь is used only after consonants and before о, where it marks palatalisation of the consonant.

Bulgarian spelling can also employ vowels with grave accent to mark the stress (e.g. in textbooks for foreigners), or to disambiguate some homographic or homophonic words (e.g. па̀ра (steam) and пара̀ (old coin)). The 3p singular feminine personal pronoun should always be spelled ѝ (и with grave) to disambiguate it from the conjunction и (and). Unfortunately this character is present in only a few fonts, so on a computer people usually type й or и.

Exercises

Exercise A: Read aloud:

1) отново
2) едно
3) момче
4) след
5) работа
6) приятел
7) къде
8) до
9) библиотека
10) проблем
11) защо
12) стая
13) номер
14) там
15) девет
16) домашна работа
17) това
18) училище
19) не
20) география

Урок № 2 / Lesson 2: "To Be", Negation, Нали, Gender

Текст / Text

Антон: Здравей, Как се казваш?
Мария: Здравей. Аз съм Мария.
Антон: Добре съм. А ти как се казваш?
Мария: Мария. Как си?
Антон: Добре съм. А ти как си?
Мария: Аз също съм добре. Ти от къде си?
Антон: От Русия. А ти си от България, нали?
Мария: Да. Приятно ми е да се запознаем.

btw: Мария and Антон are names (Maria and Anton).

Нови думи / New words


Vocabulary

 Здравей!  Hello!, Hi!
 Как?  How?
 (Ти) как се казваш?  What is your name?
 добре  well, OK
 също  too
 (Ти) от къде си?  Where are you from?
 къде?  where?
 от  from
 (от) Русия  (from) Russia
 (от) България  (from) Bulgaria
 да  yes
 Приятно ми е да се запознаем  Nice to meet you
 български  Bulgarian (language)
 тук  here

Граматика / Grammar

1) съм / "To Be"
 аз съм  I am
 ти си  you are (sg.)
 той е  he is
 тя е  she is
 то е  it is
 ние сме  we are
 вие сте  you are (pl.)
 те са  they are
Отрицание / Negation

The negative form of the verb "съм" (to be) is formed by adding the negative particle "не" bofore the verb:

 аз не съм  I am not
 ти не си  you are not (sg.)
 той не е  he is not
 тя не е  she is not
 то не е  it is not
 ние не сме  we are not
 вие не сте  you are not (pl.)
 те не са  they are not

But you don't need obligatorily from a subject in each sentence. You can say: Аз съм от България, but you can also say: От България съм. You can miss "аз" but to do that you have to put the object before the verb. "Ние сме тук." or "Тук сме." "Те са добре." or "Добре са."

2) Нали?

When you aren't sure of something, you can make a statement asking for confirmation using Нали.

You are from Bulgaria, aren't you?Ти си от България, нали?
You speak Bulgarian, don't you?Ти говориш български, нали?
She isn't here, is she?Тя не е тук, нали?

3) Род / Gender

In Bulgarian there are three genders (such as in Russian or German): masculineъжки род), feminineенски род) and neuter (среден род). Every word has a gender and there are some rules for their determinations:

Words from masculine end usually in a consonant, or in Й:
мъж (a man), вълк (a wolf), филм (a film), герой (a hero), живот (a life)
But there are some words that end in –A or –О:
баща (а father), чичо (an uncle), дядо (a grandfather), съдия (a judge) etc…

Words from feminine end usually in –А, , -Ост, -Ест:
жена (a woman), маса (a table), ябълка (an apple), стая (a room), радост (joy), болест (an illness) etc…
There are few exceptions that end in a consonant:
нощ (a night), кръв (blood), захар (sugar), сол (salt), есен (autumn) etc…

The nouns that belong to the neuter gender have endings , , or end in Е, И, У, Ю (the latter are usually loan words):
момче (a boy), момиче (a girl), езеро (a lake), лице (a face), име (a name)
такси (a taxi), бижу (a jewel), меню (a menu)

Упражнения / Exercises

Each lesson will come with some exercises so you can practice the grammar and vocabulary of the lesson.

Exercise A: Translate the text above into English.

Exercise B: Write the gender of these words:
1) книга (a book)
2) заек ( a rabbit)
3) компютър (a computer)
4) тетрадка (a notebook)
5) дърво (a tree)
6) зима (winter)
7) ученик (a student)
8) вода (water)

Решения / Solutions

After you've done the exercises you can check whether your answer is correct using the following solutions:

Solution of Exercise A:
Translation:
Anton: Hello, what is your name?
Maria: Hello. I am Мария.
Anton: I'm okay. What is your name?
Maria: Мария. How are you?
Anton: I'm well. How are you?
Maria: I am well too. Where are you from?
Anton: From Russia. You're from Bulgaria, right?
Maria: Yes. Nice to meet you.

Solution of Exercise B:
1) книга - f
2) заек - m
3) компютър - m
4) тетрадка - f
5) дърво - n
6) зима - f
7) ученик - m
8) вода - f


Урок № 3 / Lesson 3: Present Tense, Definite Form, What? What kind of?, Question Forms

Текст / Text

Антон: Здравей отново!
Мария: Здравей!
Антон: Къде отиваш?
Мария: Отивам до библиотеката.
Антон: Защо?
Мария: Имам работа там.
Антон: Каква работа?
Мария: Имам домашна работа по география и търся информация за Русия.
Антон: Искаш ли помощ?
Мария: С удоволствие.

Нови думи / New words


Vocabulary

 отново  again
 къде  where (to)
 отиваш  you are going, you go
 отивам  I'm going, I go
 до  to, next to
 библиотека (f)  library
 библиотеката  the library
 защо?  why?
 имам  I have, I'm having
 работа (f)  work
 там  there
 каква?  what (for feminine words)
 домашна работа (f)  homework
 география (f)  geography
 и  and
 търся  I'm looking for, I look for, I'm searching, I search
 информация (f) за  information about
 искаш  you want
 помощ (f)  help – an exception
 с удоволствие (n)  with pleasure

Граматика / Grammar

1) обтегнати до момента / Present Tense

In Bulgarian language there isn't any difference between 'present simple' or ' present continuous" so when you say "отивам" you can translate it as "I go" or "I'm going".
пишаI write or I'm writing
всеки ден (m) – every day
писмо (n) – a letter (post)

 Пиша всеки ден.  I write every day.
 Пиша писмо сега.  I'm writing a letter right now.

In Bulgarian language there are three conjugations of the verbs. Now we are going to consider the third conjugation.

The verbs from the third conjugation end usually in –ам or –ям. Look up these examples:

You have to remove the ending "-ам" or "ям" from the verb and then to put the following endings:

 имамto have
 аз им + ам = аз имам  I have
 ти им + аш = ти имаш  you have
 той им + а = той има  he has
 ние им + аме = ние имаме  we have
 вие им + ате = вие имате  you have
 те им + ат = те имат  they have
 отивамto go
 аз отив + ам = аз отивам  I go
 ти отив + аш = ти отиваш  you go
 той отив + а = той отива  he goes
 ние отив + аме = ние отиваме  we go
 вие отив + ате = вие отивате  you go
 те отив + ат = те отиват  they go
 искамto want
 аз иск + ам = аз искам  I want
 ти иск + аш = ти искаш  you want
 той иск + а = той иска  he wants
 ние иск + аме = ние искаме  we want
 вие иск + ате = вие искате  you want
 те иск + ат = те искат  they want
 сменямto change
 аз смен + ям = аз сменям  I change
 ти смен + яш = ти сменяш  you change
 той смен + я = той сменя  he changes
 ние смен + яме = ние сменяме  we change
 вие смен + яте = вие сменяте  you change
 те смен + ят = те сменят  they change

When the verb ends in "-ам" you must to add: "-ам" "-аш" "" "-аме" "-ате" "-ат"
When the verb ends in "-ям" you must to add: "-ям" "-яш" "" "-яме" "-яте" "-ят"

The negative form is formed by adding the particle "не" in front of the verb:
аз не отивам - I'm not going (or just Не отивам)
ти не сменяш - You don't change (or just Не сменяш)

Be careful!!! The negative form of the verb "имам" (to have) is "нямам" (don't have) аз нямам - I don't have
ти нямаш - you don't have
той няма - he doesn't have
ние нямаме - we don't have
вие нямате - you don't have
те нямат - they don't have

2) Членуваната форма / Definite Form

Членуваната форма на съществителните от женски род, ед.ч./ Definite form of the nouns in feminine, sg:

As you see in the text Maria says: "Отивам до библиотеката" which means: "I'm going to the library".

"Библиотека" means "a library" This word is feminine (because it ends in –A) and its definite form is formed by adding "-та"… All words that are feminine form get their definite form by adding "-та":

библиотека (a library) but:
библиотеката (the library)

 Indefinite  Definite
 жена (a woman)  жената (the woman)
 работа (a work)  работата (the work)
 помощ (help)  помощта (the help)

This rule is observed even in feminine words ending in a consonant…

btw: the definite form of the word: "домашна работа" (a homework) isn't "домашна работата", but "домашната работа" because when there is an adjective in front of the noun the ending is put on it… I will explain this later.

3) Какъв, каква, какво, какви? / What? What kind of?

Какъв – for masculine nouns: какъв филм? (what kind of film), какъв мъж (what kind of man)
Каква – for feminine nouns: каква работа? (what kind of work), каква стая? (what room)
Какво – for neuter nouns: какво писмо? (what letter), какво име? (what name)
Какви – for plural forms – we'll cover this later.

4) Падежи / Cases

In Bulgarian there aren't any cases except Vocative. You can see:

 Отивам до библиотеката.  I'm going to the library.
 Имам домашна работа.  I have homework.
 Търся информация.  I'm looking for some information.

So you don't have to worry about any case endings (not as in Russian or Finnish as well)

5) Въпросителни форми / Question Forms

The forming of question forms is quite easy:

Without question word: You have to put the question particle "ли" after the verb:

 Искаш ли помощ?  Do you want some help?
 Отиваш ли до библиотеката?  Are you going to the library?

With question word: Just don't add anything:

 Къде отиваш?  Where are you going? (not: Къде ли отиваш)
 Защо искаш помощ?  Why do you want some help? (not: Защо ли искаш помощ)

The negative form:
Не искаш ли помощ?
Не отиваш ли до библиотеката?
Защо не искаш помощ?

Btw: "Не" is always situated in front of the verb!!!
Btw: You don't have to use any indefinite articles, so forget about "a car" or "some information". Just use: "кола", "информация"

Упражнения / Exercises

Exercise A: Translate the text above into English.

Exercise B: Conjugate the following verbs:
1) разбирам (to understand)
2) намирам (to find)
3) слушам (to listen)
4) получавам (to get something)
5) обичам (to love)
6) забравям (to forget)

Exercise C: Translate the following sentences:
1) I'm looking for the car.
2) Where is the woman?
3) I have a table.
4) I want an apple.
5) What kind of notebook do you want?
6) Do you have any work?

Решения / Solutions

Solution of Exercise A:
Translation:
Антон: Hello again.
Мария: Hello.
Антон: Where are you going?
Мария: I’m going to the library.
Антон: Why?
Мария: I have work there.
Антон: What work?
Мария: I have geography homework and I’m looking for information about Russia.
Антон: Do you want any help?
Мария: With pleasure.

Solution of Exercise C:
1) Търся колата.
2) Имам маса.
3) Искам ябълка.
4) Каква тетрадка искате?
5) Вие имате ли работа?


Уро к № 4 / Lesson 4: 2nd Present Verbs, One, This/These, 1 to 10, Personal Pronouns, Imperative Mood

Текст / Text

Мария: Привет, Антоне!
Антон: Здравей, Мария! Как си?
Мария: Аз съм много добре. Какво пра виш тук, в училище?
Антон: Търся едно момче.Той учи в това училище.
Мария: Защо го търсиш? Проблем ли имаш с него?
Антон: Не, не. Той ми е приятел.
Мария: Ясно. Трябва ли ти помощ?
Антон: Да. Къде е стая номер 9?
Мария: Тя се намира там.
Антон: Заведи ме там!
Мария: Върви след мен!

Нови думи / New words


Vocabulary

 привет  hi, hello! (it isn't used very often)
 много добре  very good
 правя (II. Conj)  to do
 правиш  you're doing, you do
 тук  here
 търся (II. Conj)  to search, to look for
 едно (n)  one
 момче (n)  a boy
 уча (II. Conj)  to learn, to teach
 учиш  you learn
 в  in (in most cases) (във – when the next word begins with "В" or "Ф" – във водата (in the water)
 това (n)  this
 училище (n)  a school
 го  him (Acc. short form)
 него  him (Acc. long form)
 проблем (m)  a problem
 с  with (със – when the next word begins with "С" or "З": със змията (with the snake)
 не  no
 ми  to me (Dat. Short form)
 ти  to you (Dat. Short form)
 приятел (m)  a friend
 ясно  clearly, I see
 трябва (+dat.)  to need
 къде  where
 стая (f)  a room
 номер (m)  number
 девет  nine
 намирам се (III. Conj)  to be situated
 там  there
 заведи ме там!  Bring me there!
 вървя (II. Conj)  to walk
 върви!  walk! (imperative)
 след  after
 мен  me (Acc. long form)

Граматика / Grammar

1) 2nd Настояще напрегнат / 2nd Present Verbs

Второ спрежение на глаголите в сегашно време/ Second conjugation of the verbs in presents

Verbs in this groups end in:
• consonant + я
• verbs ending in -оя when the stress is on о.
• some verbs ending in 'a'

» Examples of verbs ending in a consonant + я: правя (to do), мисля (to think), седя (to sit), вървя (to walk)
Exception: къпя се (to take a shower) - it is in 1st conjugation

Like you have probably already guessed to conjugate these verbs we'll remove the ending and then add the following endings:
Singular - Единствено число
1.
2. -иш
3.

Plural - Множествено число
1. -им
2. -ите
3. -ят

Let's conjugate the verb правя:
1. аз правя - I do
2. ти правиш - you do
3. той / тя /то прави - he/she/it does

1. ние правим - we do
2. вие правите - you do
3. те правят - they do

»Verbs ending in in second conjugation

Here it is sort of an exception, but not exactly. In this group there are only verbs ending in , which have Ж, Ш or Ч just before it.

Unfortunately, not all the verbs that end in -жа, -ша and -ча are here.
Here are around 10-15 verbs in second conjugation which end in -a:
влача, въ рша, греша, държа, мълча, пуша, служа, суча, суша, тежа, уча, харча, хвърча, пържа

Again we remove the ending -a to add the other endings for different persons:
Единствено число
1.
2. -иш
3.

Множествено число
1. -им
2. -ите
3. -ат

Example: влача
1. аз влача - I drag
2. ти влачиш - you drag
3. той / тя / то влачи - he/ she/ it drags

1. ние влачим - we drag
2. вие влачите - you drag
3. те влачат - they drag

or

1. аз уча - I learn
2. ти учиш - you learn
3. той/ тя/ то учи - he/ she/ it learns

1. ни е учим - we learn
2. вие учите - you learn
3. те учат - they learn

2) Един, една, едно, едни / One

един – for masculine – one: един приятел (one friend), един човек (one person)
една – for feminine – one: една жена (one woman), една стая (one room)
едно – for neuter – one: едно дете (one child), едно училище (one school)
едни – for plural (I know that sounds very weird because in English you can't say "one books" but in Bulgarian it is normal to say: едни книги ( the plural of "книга" is "книги") (one books)… In this cases "едни" is like an "indefinite article"
- Той вижда едни книги.He is seeing books

3) Този, тази, това, тези / This, These

този – for masculine – this: този мъж (this man), този проблем (this problem)
тази – for feminine – this: тази жена (this woman), тази работа (this work)
това – for neuter – this: това дете (this child), това училище (this school)
тези – for plural – these - More later

The nouns with "този", "тази", "това" and "тези" have never definite article !!!

4) 1 към 10 / 1 to 10

да броим от 1 до 10 / To count from 1 to 10

 едно  one
 две  two
 три  three
 четири  four
 пет  five
 шест  six
 седем  seven
 осем  eight
 девет  nine
 десет  ten
5) лични местоимения / Personal Pronouns

Лични местоимения във винителен и дателен падеж / Personal pronouns in Accusative and in Dative:

In Bulgarian only the Personal pronouns have Accusative and Dative forms. There are two forms – short and long. The long forms are often used with a preposition, but the short forms – without)

In Accusative

 Nom long f. short f.
 аз  мен  ме
 ти  теб/ тебе  те
 той  него  го
 тя  нея  я
 то  него  го
 ние  нас  ни
 вие  вас  ви
 те  тях  ги

Look at these examples:
Ти си с мен.(But: С мен си)You are with me.
Те са в нас (but: В нас са)They are in us.
Имам проблем с тяхI have problem with them.

Той я вижда.He is seeing her.
Аз ги търся. (but: Търся ги) – I'm looking for them.
Той ни учи. (but Учи ни) – He is teaching us.

When we have sentences with "to be" and the subject is mentioned, the personal pronouns have to be put after the verb (Ти си с мен), but if the subject isn't mentioned, the personal pronouns in Acc. or in Dative have to be put before the verb (С мен сиYou are with me)

The short forms are used more often than the long forms. As a rule their position is in front of the verb. Sometimes, though, they appear after the verb because they cannot appear in clause-initial position. The position of the long forms is after the verb:

Аз те питам. Питам те. Аз пи там те бе.
I (am) ask(ing) you.

Аз ти говоря. Говоря ти. Аз гово ря на тебе.
I (am) speak(ing) to you.

In Dative

 Nom Dat. long f. Dat. short f.
 аз  на мен(е)  ми
 ти  на тeб(е)  ти
 той  на него (нему – archaic form)  му
 тя  на нея (ней – archaic form)  й
 то  на него (нему – archaic form)  му
 ние  на нас (нам –archaic form)  ни
 вие  на вас (вам – archaic from)  ви
 те  на тях (тям – archaic form)  ги

Аз ти говоря. Говоря ти. Аз говоря на тебе.
I (am) speak(ing) to you.

The short forms and the long forms are identical in meaning. The long forms for the dative case are considered archaic, so the complex forms are used instead. The forms for the accusative case are used with transitive verbs that have been used transitively. The forms for dative case are used with intransitive verbs or with transitive verbs that have been used intransitively (be aware that in one language a verb may be transitive, and in another language the same verb may be intransitive!):

Аз питам тебе, не него.
I (am) ask(ing) you, not him.

Аз питам за тебе.
I (am)ask(ing) about you.

Аз вървя към тебе.
I (am) walk(ing) towards you.

The short forms for the dative case substitute only the complex form, i.e. the combination of the preposition "HA" + the long form for the accusative. Combinations of other prepositions and the long form for the accusative cannot be substituted by the short form for the dative case, neither can the short forms appear after prepositions (there are some exceptions but we'll not go into such details). Here are some examples:

Аз говоря на него. Аз му говоря.
I (am) talk(ing) to him.

Аз говоря за него.
I (am) talk(ing) about him.

Sometimes both the long form and the short form can appear in the sentence, and they refer to one and the same object:
Казаха ми, че Николова е в отпуск по майчинство.
А на мене ми казаха, че е в командировка.
I was told that Nicolova was on maternity leave.
And I was told that she was on a business trip.

Sometimes the short forms of the personal pronouns appear alongside the noun or the noun phrase they refer to. The reason for this is that it is not always clear which is the subject and which is the object of the sentence. This happens when the structure of the sentence is inverted, i.e. the object appears in sentence-initial position:

Колко странно! Кучето го нападна котка/котката!
How strange! The dog was attacked by a/the cat!(=A/the cat attacked the dog!)

In the example above the object is in sentence-initial position because the situation is not typical (you can hardly expect a cat to attack a dog, rather the opposite). But the sentence-initial position is typical for the subject, not for the object of the sentence. And here comes in the short form for the accusative (or the dative) of the personal pronoun. It is added right after the noun it refers to and thus it shows its role in the sentence - the role of an object. Such construction is impossible in English - you either have to stick to the straight word order (i.e. "subject predicate object"), or you have to use passive voice if you want to keep the dog in sentence-initial position.

6) Повелително наклонение / Imperative mood

To form the imperative form of any verb, you should take the form for the 1st person sg. present tense and remove the personal ending:
вървя (to walk) - върв-
мисля (to think) – мисл-
стоя (to stay) – сто-
пия (to drink) – пи-
идвам (to come) – идва-

If the stem ends in a consonant, you have to put these endings:
-и (for 2.sg.)
-ете (for 2.pl.)

върв-и!go! (for 2.sg.)
върв-ете!go! (for 2.pl.)

мисл-и! - think! (for 2.sg.)
мисл-ете!think! (form 2.pl.)

The stress is always on и and -ете

If the stem ends in a vocal, you have to put these endings: -й (for 2.sg.)
-йте (for 2.pl.)

сто-й!stay! (for 2.sg.)
сто-йте!stay! (for 2.pl.)

идва-й!come! (for 2.sg.)
идва-йте!come! (for 2.pl.)

The stress here is never on the imperative endings

There are also some exceptions:
видя (to see) ⇒ виж!/вижте!
вляза (to come in, to enter) ⇒ влез!/влезте!
изляза (to go out, to exit) ⇒ излез!/излезте!
сляза (to come/get down, to descend) ⇒ слез!/слезте!
дойда (to come) ⇒ ела!/елате!
отида (to go) ⇒ иди!/идете!
държа (do hold) ⇒ дръж!/дръжте!
съм (to be) ⇒ бъди!/бъдете!

We won't consider the negative forms right now!

Упражнения / Exercises

Exercise A: Translate the following sentences into Bulgarian:
1) Learn with me!
2) Come to me. (the Bulgarian verb here is "дойда")
3) This boy is friend of mine. (here "of mine"="Dative form to "аз")
4) He learns in Varna. (Varna (Варна) is a town in Bulgaria)
5) This is a room.
6) Do you have any problems with us?
7) What are you doing in this room?
8) We learn in this school.

Решения / Solutions

Solution of Exercise A:
1) Учи с мен!
2) Ела при/към мен!
3) Това момче мен ми е приятел.
4) Той учи във Варна.
5) Това е стая.
6) Имаш ли проблеми с нас?
7) Какво правиш в тази стая?
8) Ние учим в това училище.


Урок № 5 / Lesson 5: Definite Article, Relative Pronoun, Adjectives, Possessive Pronouns

Текст / Text

Мария върви из града и слуша музика. Тя вижда Антон, който влиза в един магазин. Магазинът е голям. Тя също влиза в него:
Мария: Здравей, Антон. Какво правиш тук?
Антон: Здравей, Мария. Пазарувам. Трябва ми хляб.
Магазинерът отива и донася хляба на Антон.
Магазинерът: Хлябът днес е много хубав.
Антон го взима и го слага в чантата.
Антон: А колко струва хлябът?
Магазинерът отговаря:
- 75 стотинки.
Антон ги дава на магазинера и заедно с Мария излизат от магазина.

Нови думи / New words


Vocabulary

 град (m)  town, city
 града  the town
 слушам (3)  to listen to (the Bulgarian verb is used without a preposition. Direct by Acc)
 музика (f)  music
 виждам (3)  to see
 който  who (relative pronoun for masculine)
 влизам в (3)  to come in
 магазин (m)  shop, store
 магазинът  the shop, the store
 голям  big
 също  too ("също" is placed in front of this word, which we think it’s the most important.)
 пазарувам (3)  to go shopping
 трябва + Dative  to need
 трябва ми  I need
 трябва ти  you need
 хляб (m)  bread
 хляба, хлябът  the bread
 магазинер (m)  shopkeeper, storekeeper
 магазинерът  the shopkeeper, the storekeeper
 донасям (3)  to bring
 много  very
 днес  today
 хубав  good, nice, beautiful
 взимам (3)  to take
 слагам (3)  to put, to place
 чанта (f)  bag, shopping bag
 a  well (in question sentences)
 колко  how much? how many?
 струвам (3)  to cost, to be worth
 отговарям (3)  to answer
 стотинки (pl.)  stotinka (100 stotinka = 1 lev), 1 euro = 1,95lev.
 давам + dative  to give to
 заедно с  together with
 излизам от (3)  to come out of, to go out of

Граматика / Grammar

1) Определена статия / Definite Article

Определена статия от мъжки имена / Definite article of masculine nouns

Masculine nouns ending in consonant add the endings , -ът, , -ят.

The articles -ът and -ят are called complete articles and are used only when the noun is a subject in the sentence!!!! The articles -a and are called incomplete articles and are used in all other cases.

Examples:
Мъжът пазарува.The man is going shopping.
Давам книгата на мъжа.I’m giving the book to the man.

In the first sentence "the man" (мъжът) is the subject (he is going) but in the second sentence "the man" (на мъжа) is in Dative, so the incomplete article is used. Always, when in front of the masculine noun there is a preposition, it takes the incomplete article. (от магазина, на магазинера, при мъжа)

Normally in the colloquial language, people pronounce only the incomplete article in all cases. So, you probably ask yourselves why do I torture you by introducing this rule. It is important for the written language. Plus, sometimes the meaning of the sentence might not be clear if we can't tell the subject from the direct compliment.

Endings:
Some nouns take the articles or -ят – these are the nouns which end in -тел, -ар,

 учител (teacher)  учителя  учителят
 лекар (doctor)  лекаря  лекарят
 край (end)  края  краят

And some exceptions, which also take the articles , -ят: ден (day) - деня, кон (horse) - коня, зет (son-in-law) - зетя, крал (king) - краля, цар (tzar) - царя, сън (dream) - съня, път (road) - пътя, огън (fire) - огъня, нокът (nail) - нокътя, лакът (elbow) - лакътя.

The rest of the masculine nouns, ending in consonant take the endings or -ът.

 град (city, town)  града  градът
 молив (pencil)  молива  моливът
 компютър (computer)  компютъра  компютърът

Masculine nouns ending in -a or add the ending for feminine gender -та. They don’t have different forms for complete or incomplete article.

баща (father) – бащата
съдия (judge) – съдията

Masculine nouns in -o or -e add the ending for neuter gender –тo. They don’t have different forms for complete or incomplete article.

чичо (uncle) – чичото
аташе (attache) – аташето

2) Относителни Местоимения / Relative Pronouns

The relative pronouns: който, която, което, които = who, which, that

 Тя вижда Антон, който влиза в един магазин.  She is seeing Anton, who is coming in a shop.
 Той вижда Мария, която влиза в един магазин.  He is seeing Maria, who is coming in a shop.
 Те виждат детето, което влиза в един магазин.  They are seeing the child, who is coming in a shop.
 Детето вижда Мария и Антон, които влизат в един магазин.  The child is seeing Maria and Anton, who are coming in a shop.

Nominative
masculine: който
feminine: която
neuter: което
plural: които

Accusative
masculine: когото / който
feminine: която
neuter: което
plural: които

Dative and with a preposition
masculine: на когото/ на който, с когото/ с който
feminine: на която, с която
neuter: на което, с което
plural: на които, с които

The form for masculine nouns in Accusative and Dative "когото" and "на когото" are used only if the subject is an animate (man, teacher, fireman). The forms "който" and "на който" are used if the subject is an inanimate (bread, computer…)

This is the man, who I see every day.Това е мъжът, когото виждам всеки ден.
This is the bread, which I eat.Това е хлябът, който ям.

Be careful with the prepositions. In Bulgarian there are always placed in front of the pronoun:
с която, при когото, на което…

This is the man, who I’m giving the book to.Това е мъжът, на когото давам книгата./ комуто давам книгата.
This is the woman who I’m talking with.Това е жената, с която говоря.

And one more thing. You have to agree the relative pronouns with the gender of the nouns…
Look at this:
This is the child who is playing outside.това е детето, което играе навън.
This is the letter which I’m writing. - Това е писмото, което пиша.
The relative pronouns in the both sentences are "което" , because both the child, and the letter are neuter (It’s not important if the noun is animate or inanimate)

3) Прилагателни / Adjectives

Мъжът е хубав.The man is beautiful.
Жената е хубава.The woman is beautiful.
Детето е хубаво.The child is beautiful.

In the dictionaries the adjectives are given in their masculine forms. singular. To make such constructions as "he is good", or "the car is fast" you have to agree the adjective with the gender of the noun:

masculine – no ending
feminine - -a
neuter - -o
plural - -и

Колата (f) е бърз+а (The car is fast.)
Кучето е голям+о (The dog is big.)

But when the adjective ends in –ъ plus other consonant, the ъ is dropped. (кръгълround)

masculine – кръгъл
feminine – кръгла
neuter – кръгло
plural – кръгли

It’s easy, isn’t it?

4) Прилагателни имена пред съществителни без определителен член / Adjectives in front of nouns without a definite article: The construction is the same:

хубав мъж – a beautiful man
хубава жена – a beautiful woman
хубаво дете – a beautiful child
хубави жени – beautiful women

добър (good) ⇒ the "ъ" is dropped

добър бащаa good father
добра майкаa good mother
добро кучеa good dog
добри децаgood children

5) Притежателни Местоимения / Possessive Pronouns

Мой - my, mine (for masculine)
Моя - my, mine (for feminine)
Мое - my, mine (for neuter)
Мои - my, mine (for plural)
Ми - my, mine (for all) - This is a short form, very common (моята жена = жена(та) ми (my wife), моето дете = детето ми (my child)

Твой - your, yours (for masculine)
Твоя - your, yours (for feminine)
Твое - your, yours (for neuter)
Твои - your,yours (for plural)
Ти - your, yours (for all) - this is a short form, very common (твоята жена = жена ти (your wife), твоето дете = детето ти (your child)

Негов - his, its (for masculine)
Негова - his, its (for feminine)
Негово - his, its (for neuter)
Негови - his, its (for plural)
Му - his, its (for all) - this is a short form, very common (неговата жена = жена(та) му (his (its) wife), неговото дете = детето му (his (its) child)

Неин - her (for masculine)
Нейна - her (for feminine)
Нейно - her (for neuter)
Нейни - her (for plural)
й - her (for all) - this is a short form, very common (нейната жена = жена(та) й (=her wife), нейното дете = детето й (her child)

Наш - our, ours (for masculine)
Наша - our, ours (for feminine)
Наше - our, ours (for neuter)
Наши - our, ours ( for plural)
ни - our, ours (for all) - this is a short form, very common (нашата жена = жената ни (our wife), нашето дете = детето ни (our child)

Ваш - your, yours (for masculine) - plural
Ваша - your, yours (for feminine) - plural
Ваше - your, yours (for neuter) - plural
Ваши - your, yours (for plural) - plural
ви - your, yours (for all) - this is a short form, very common (вашата жена = жената ви (your wife), вашето дете = детето ви (your child)

Техен - their, theirs (for masculine)
Тяхна - their, theirs (for feminine)
Тяхно - their, theirs (for neuter)
Техни - their, theirs (for plural
им - their, theirs (for all) - this is a short form, very common (тяхната жена = жената им (their wife), тяхното дете = детето им (their child)

Be careful with the definite article, which is added to the possesive pronouns, for the long forms, and to the noun for the short forms!!!
мое+то дете, but дете+то ми (the definite article for neuter is "-то", and child is neuter)

Упражнения / Exercises

Exercise A: Translate the text above into English.

Exercise B: Translate these sentences into Bulgarian:
1) He is seeing his wife.
2) My sister is listening to music in my room.
3) Our dog is very good.
4) Is this the book that you read?
5) The boy is coming out of the house (house = къща)
6) The man is giving me his book.
7) I’m giving the man my book.
8) Where is the bread?
9) Your child is beautiful.
10) Who is the man, who your mother is talking with?

Решения / Solutions

Solution of Exercise A:
Translation:
Maria is walking through the town and is listening to music. She is seeing Anton who is going into a shop. The shop is big. She is going into it too:
Marian: Hello, Anton. What are you doing here?
Anton: Hello, Maria. I'm going shopping. I need some bread.
The shopkeeper is going and bringing the bread to Anton.
The shopkeeper: The bread today is very delicious.
Anton is taking it and putting it into the bag.
Anton: How much does the bread cost?
The shopkeeper answers:
- 75 stotinki.
Anton is gives them to the shopkeeper and together with Maria goes out of the shop.

Solution of Exercise B:
1) Той вижда жена(та) му.
2) Сестра ми слуша музика в моята стая.
3) Нашето куче е много добро.
4) Тази ли е книгата, която четеш?
5) Момчето излиза от къщата.
6) Мъжът ми дава неговата книга.
7) Аз давам книгата ми на мъжа.
8) Къде е хлябът?
9) Твоето дете е хубаво.
10) Кой е мъжът, с когото говори майка ти?


End Of Part One

This is the end of part one.

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